Operating Systems Domains

OS Networks part 2


4.2 Identify concepts and capabilities relating to the Internet and basic procedures for setting up a system for Internet access.

Concepts and terminology

Internet Service Providers (ISPs) are companies that offer Internet connectivity to end customers. world. ISPs offer a range of services to end users, including:

web browsing
server space for a web site
Usenet news group access
For dial-up Internet connections, most Internet Service Providers (ISPs) automatically assign your computer a dynamic IP address.
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. A networking protocol that allows computers to communicate across interconnected networks and the Internet. Every computer on the Internet supports TCP/IP.

Microsoft TCP/IP provides the following benefits:

Support for Internet connectivity and the Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP).
Connectivity across interconnected networks with different operating systems and hardware platforms, including communication with many non-Microsoft systems, such as Internet hosts, Apple Macintosh systems, IBM mainframes, UNIX systems, and Open VMS systems.
Support for automatic TCP/IP configuration using Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) servers such as Windows NT servers.
Support for automatic IP-address-to-NetBIOS computer name resolution using Windows NT Windows Internet Naming Service (WINS) servers.
Support for Windows Sockets 1.1 and 2.0, which are used by many client/server applications and many public-domain Internet tools.
Support for the NetBIOS interface, commonly known as NetBIOS over TCP/IP.
Support for many commonly used utilities, which are installed with the protocol.
To install TCP/IP

In the Network option in Control Panel, click Add on the Configuration tab.
In the Select Network Component Type dialog box, double-click Protocol.
In the Select Network Protocol dialog box, select Microsoft from the Manufacturers list. In the Network Protocols list, click TCP/IP.
Click OK.
Internetwork packet exchange / sequenced packet exchange is a protocol stack used by Novell networks. IPX is the NetWare protocol for packet forwarding and routing. SPX is connection oriented used to guarantee the delivery of the data being sent.
NWlink is the microsoft implementation of the IPX/SPX protocol.

Microsoft IPX/SPX-compatible Protocol

Works with Microsoft Client for NetWare Networks and Novell Client for Windows 95/98.
Supports packet-burst mode to offer improved network performance.
Supports the Windows Sockets, NetBIOS, and ECB programming interfaces.
Support for automatic detection of frame type, network address, and other configuration settings.
Routable connectivity across all network bridges and routers configured for IPX/SPX routing.

NetBios extended user Interface. NetBEUI is used mostly on small, non routed networks. It is limited to microsoft based networks.


Verifies connections to a remote computer or computers. This command is available only if the TCP/IP protocol has been installed.

Hypertext Markup Language which is used for writing pages for the web.

Hypertext transport protocol is the method by which web pages are transferred over the Internet.

File Transfer Protocol provides file transfers between local and remote computers it is installed with the TCP/IP connectivity utilities.

Domain Names (Web sites)
All Sites on the Internet have there own URL (Uniform Resource Locator), which tells an Internet application, the location and what access method to use. For example http://www.microsoft.com or ftp://ftp.microsoft.com, http:// and ftp:// are the access methods (protocols) and www.microsoft.com is the location.

Every computer on the Internet has a IP address, which is a set of 4 numbers ( because these numbers would be hard to remember the domain name system is used, so instead of typing the 4 sets of numbers you can simply type http://www.microsoft.com where www.microsoft.com is the domain name. The last three letters of the domain name is the domain type such as .com (commercial) .edu (education) .gov (government) et.

Dial-up networking
Allows your computer to access a network or the Internet from a remote location. You connect to an ISP by using Dial-Up Networking to dial in to their Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) or Serial Line IP (SLIP) servers, which are connected directly to the Internet All SLIP accounts require you to manually configure an IP address on your computer when you connect. Service providers who support PPP usually assign an IP address automatically each time you dial in to the service provider.

This utility determines the route taken to a network destination.

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