Operating Systems Domains

Installation Configuration part 1



Domain 2.0 Installation, Configuration and Upgrading This domain requires knowledge of installing, configuring and upgrading Windows 9x, and Windows 2000. This includes knowledge of system boot sequences and minimum hardware requirements.

2.1 Identify the procedures for installing Win 9x and Win 2000 for bringing the software to a basic operational level.

Installing Windows 98

You can run the Windows 98 Setup program (Setup.exe) from the:

Windows 95 user interface.
Windows 3.1x or Windows for Workgroups 3.1x user interface.
MS-DOS command prompt.

Upgrading Windows 95 Keeping Current Settings

With this method, you cannot change the installation directory or choose the Setup options such as Choosing Typical, Portable, Compact, or Custom Setup Options.
To start Windows 98 Setup from the Windows 95 user interface

  • Start Windows 95.
  • Close all programs, including any anti-virus programs.
  • Click Start, and then click Run.
  • Type d:\setup
  • The Windows 98 Setup Wizard starts.
  • Follow the instructions on the screen
  • Upgrading Windows 95 Changing Current Settings If your computer is running Windows 95 but you want to change its current settings, start Setup from MS-DOS. With this method, Setup displays dialog boxes that let you change or choose the following settings:

  • Installation directory
  • Components you want to install
  • User name and company
  • Computer name, description, and workgroup
  • Computer settings such as keyboard layout and language support

  • For a Clean installation of Windows 98 to a new hard disk drive or a reformatted hard disk you start Setup from MS-DOS
    with a start up disk.

    Installing Windows 2000

    Minimum hardware requirements

  • 133 MHz Pentium or higher microprocessor (or equivalent).
  • 64 megabytes of RAM recommended minimum 32 MB of RAM is the minimum supported. 4 gigabytes (GB) of RAM is the maximum.
  • 2 GB hard disk with 650 MB of free space.
  • VGA or higher resolution monitor.
  • Clean Install

    Using the Setup startup disks

  • Insert Setup startup Disk 1.
  • Start your computer. Setup starts automatically.
  • Follow on screen instructions.
  • Using the CD
  • If Windows automatically detects the CD, click Install Windows 2000.
  • If Windows doesn't automatically detect the CD, start Setup from the Run command if you are in windows 9x.
  • Type cd drive:\i386\winnt32.exe
  • If you're using Windows 3.1 or the command prompt, type cd drive:\i386\winnt.exe
  • Follow on screen instructions.
  • Dual-Boot Configuration

    Windows 2000 supports dual booting with the following operating systems

  • Windows NT 3.51, Windows NT 4.0
  • Windows 95, Windows 98
  • Windows 3.1, Windows for Workgroups 3.11
  • MS-DOS
  • OS/2
  • Start Up

    Windows 9x Start Up Process

    1) The ROM BIOS Bootstrap Process

  • Power On Self-Test (POST) occurs
  • The master boot record and partition table are read
  • 2) The Master Boot Record and Boot Sector

    The master boot record determines the location of the boot partition by reading the partition table located at the end of the master boot record. Once the location of the boot partition is determined, the master boot record passes control to the boot sector in that partition. The boot sector contains the disk boot program and a table of disk characteristics. The boot sector checks the BIOS Parameter Block (BPB) to find the location of the root directory, and then copies the Io.sys file from the root directory into memory.

    3) The Io.sys File

  • A minimal file allocation table (FAT) file system is loaded
  • The MSDOS.SYS file is read
  • The Starting Windows message is displayed
  • The Logo.sys file is loaded and displays a startup image on the screen
  • If the Drvspace.ini or Dblspace.ini file exists, the Drvspace.bin or Dblspace.bin file is loaded into memory
  • The Io.sys file opens the System.dat file
  • The Dblbuff.sys file is loaded if the "DoubleBuffer=1" is in the Msdos.sys file
  • If you have multiple hardware profiles , the hardware profile you chose is loaded from the registry
  • The Io.sys file processes the Config.sys file
  • 4) Real-Mode Configuration

    Some hardware devices and programs require that drivers or files be loaded in real-mode in order for them to work properly. To ensure backwards compatibility with these types of hardware devices or programs, Windows 95 processes the Config.sys and Autoexec.bat files if they exist.

  • The Config.sys file loads drivers into memory. If the Config.sys file does not exist, the Io.sys file loads the following required drivers Ifshlp.sys, Himem.sys, and Setver.exe
  • Windows reserves all global upper memory blocks (UMBs) for Windows 9x operating system use or for expanded memory support (EMS).
  • The Autoexec.bat file loads files and terminate and stay resident (TSR) programs into memory
  • The Win.com File and the Windows 95 Environment
  • After the Autoexec.bat file is processed, the Win.com file is run
  • The Win.com file accesses the Vmm32.vxd file. If there is enough available RAM, the Vmm32.vxd file loads into memory, otherwise, it is accessed from the hard disk. This may result in a slower startup time. The Vmm32.vxd file is similar to the Win386.exe file used in earlier versions of Windows
  • The real-mode virtual device driver loader checks for duplicate virtual device drivers (VxDs) in the Windows\System\Vmm32 folder and the Vmm32.vxd file. If a VxD exists in both the Windows\System\Vmm32 folder and the Vmm32.vxd file, the duplicate VxD is "marked" in the Vmm32.vxd file so that it is not loaded.
  • The real-mode virtual device driver loader checks that all required VxDs loaded successfully. If not, it attempts to load the drivers again
  • Once the real-mode virtual device driver loading is logged, driver initialization occurs. If there are any VxDs that require real-mode initialization, they begin their process in real-mode.
  • Vmm32 switches the computer's processor from real-mode to protected- mode
  • After all the static VxDs are loaded, the Krnl32.dll, Gdi.exe, User.exe, and Explorer.exe (the default Windows 95 shell) files are loaded.
  • Network Environment and Multi-User Profiles

    The next step in the startup process is to load the network environment. Once this occurs, the user is prompted to log on to the network that is installed.

    Windows 95 allows multiple users to save their custom desktop settings. When a user logs on to Windows 95, their desktop settings are loaded from the registry. If the user does not log on, the desktop configuration uses a default desktop.


    Windows 9x

    To partition a hard disk use Fdisk, this is an MS-DOS-based application that can be run from an MS-DOS command line or from within Windows 9x if partitioning an additional hard drive.

    With Fdisk You can do the following:

    1. Create a partition or logical drive.
    2. Set the active partition.

    3. Delete a partition or logical drive.

    4. Display partition information.

    5. Change Current Fixed Disk Drive ( only If the computer has two or more hard disks )

    To create a primary MS-DOS partition

  • In the Fdisk Options screen, press 1, and then press ENTER. The Create DOS Partition Or Logical DOS Drive screen appears.
  • Press 1, and then press ENTER. The Create Primary DOS Partition screen appears.
  • If you want the partition to be the maximum size, press ENTER. Then insert a Startup Disk in drive a:, and press any key.

  • If you do not want the partition to be the maximum size, press n, and then press ENTER. Another Create Primary DOS Partition screen appears.
  • To specify the partition size you want, follow the instructions on-screen, and then press ENTER.
  • If you create the Primary partition to use the entire hard drive, press ESC twice to exit FDISK, then reboot the computer to the floppy disk.
  • If you enable large disk support, any drives created will be FAT32. You will have to use a boot disk created from the OS you used to partition the drive, as win 95/NT cannot read FAT32 partitions (win95 ORS 2 does support Fat32)

    Fdisk is not needed with windows 2000 as Disk Management prepares hard disks.

    Windows 2000

    Disk Management, is a graphical tool for managing disks and volumes. It supports partitions, logical drives, new dynamic volumes, and remote disk management. To open Disk Management, click Start, point to Settings, click Control Panel, double-click Administrative Tools, and then double-click Computer Management. In the console tree under Storage, click Disk Management.

    Format drive

    Windows 9x

    To format a hard disk drive with Windows 98 installed
    In Windows Explorer, right-click the drive icon for that disk, and then click Format.

    To format a hard disk drive using a Windows 98 Startup Disk

  • Make sure a Startup Disk is in drive a:. Then, at the command prompt, type the following: format c:
  • If you are formatting drive c:, copy system files to the hard disk by typing the following at the command prompt:

  • format c: /s
  • When the warning message appears, proceed with formatting by pressing Y. Then press ENTER.
  • When formatting is complete, type a volume label (if you want one), and then press ENTER.
  • Remove the floppy disks from all floppy disk drives, and restart the computer by pressing CTRL+ALT+DEL.
  • Windows 2000

    The format command creates a new root directory and file system for the disk. It can also check for bad areas on the disk, and it can delete all data on the disk. For Windows 2000 to be able to use a new disk, you must first use this command to format the disk.

    You must have Administrator rights to format a hard disk.
    When you use the format command to format a hard disk, Windows 2000 displays a message of the following form before attempting to format the hard disk:

    WARNING, ALL DATA ON non removable DISK
    Proceed with Format (Y/N)?_

    format volume [/fs:file-system] [/v:label] [/q]

    Specifies the mount point, volume name, or drive letter of the drive you want to format.

    Specifies the file system to use, FAT, FAT32, or NTFS. Floppy disks can use only the FAT file system.

    Specifies the volume label.

    You can speed up the formatting process by using the /q switch. Use this switch only if there are no bad sectors on your hard disk.

    Loading drivers  

    Windows 9x

    Windows 9x automatically installs and configures most Plug and Play–compliant devices. For devices that are not automatically configured, the Add New Hardware Wizard, installs and configures legacy and Plug and Play devices that require installation information, such as the driver location.

    For many devices, you must use Device Manager in the System option in Control Panel for configuration if you need to make manual changes.  

    Windows 2000

    You must be logged on as an administrator or a member of the Administrators group to configure a device using the Add/Remove Hardware wizard in Control Panel or Device Manager.

    For a device to work properly with Windows 2000, software known as a device driver must be loaded onto the computer. Each device has its own unique device driver, which is typically supplied by the device manufacturer. However, some device drivers are included with Windows 2000.

    You can configure devices using the Add/Remove Hardware wizard in Control Panel or the Device Manager.

    If the device is Plug and Play, or it is a necessary startup device like the hard disk, this detection happens automatically. However, for some older devices, after you connect it to your computer, you may have to restart your computer. Windows 2000 then attempts to detect your new device.

    If the device is not Plug and Play, you may have to use the Add/Remove Hardware wizard in Control Panel to tell Windows 2000 what type of device you are installing. After the device is detected, or you identify the device using the Add/Remove Hardware wizard, Windows 2000 may ask you to insert the Windows 2000 CD-ROM or the manufacturer's floppy disk so it can load the proper device drivers.

    After the device drivers are loaded onto your system, Windows 2000 configures the properties and settings for the device. Although you can manually configure device properties and settings, you should let Windows 2000 do it. When you manually configure properties and settings, the settings become fixed, which means Windows 2000 cannot modify them in the future if a problem arises or there is a conflict with another device.

    Run appropriate set up utility

    Key files used for Windows 98 Setup

    The real-mode Setup component that initializes Windows 98 Setup. If this file is started from MS-DOS, it calls the real-mode stub. If started from within Windows, it is a 16-bit Windows stub.
    The protected-mode Setup components responsible for calling all other dynamic link libraries (DLLs) used in Setup.
    The primary DLL used during the Copy Files phase to perform most of the installation procedures. It is responsible for reading INF files, handling disks, and copying files.
    The module called early in the Setup process to install networking services.
    The utility that scans an existing registry for errors.
    The utility that checks local hard disks for errors.


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