Net + Domains

Network Support

   
 

 

4.1 Given a troubleshooting scenario, select the appropriate TCP/IP utility from among the following:

tracert

Tracert Utility runs at a Command prompt. It can trace a path from you to an URL or IP address. It does this by sending an ICMP echo packet, to the named host. This will show how many hops the packets have to travel and how long it takes.

Syntax for tracert :

  • -d Do not resolve addresses to hostnames.
  • -h Maximum number of hops to search for target.
  • -j Loose source route along host-list.
  • -w Change time-out value.

ping

Is command, which forwards a packet to a URL over the Internet or within an Intranet. This verifies that TCP/IP is configured correctly and that a connection can be made.

The basic ping command syntax is "ping hostname".

Ping 127.0.0.1 This is the loopback address and verifies that the computer that you are pinging from can communicate via TCP/IP with its own ethernet adapter.

arp

Address Resolution Protocol, a TCP/IP protocol used to convert an IP address into a physical address (called a DLC address), such as an Ethernet address. A host wishing to obtain a physical address broadcasts an ARP request onto the TCP/IP network. The host on the network that has the IP address in the request then replies with its physical hardware address.

There is also Reverse ARP (RARP) which can be used by a host to discover its IP address. In this case, the host broadcasts its physical address and a RARP server replies with the host's IP address.

ARP Syntax:

  • -a or arp -g Both of these commands do the same thing. They display the contents of your current arp cache.
  • -s (IP address hardware address) This commands a static entry to the arp cache.
  • -d (IP address) Removes and entry from the arp cache.

netstat

Display protocol information and connection status and provides useful information regarding traffic flow.

Syntax:

  • netstat -i lists statistics for each interface.
  • netstat -s provides a full listing of several counters.
  • netstat -rs provides routing table statistics.
  • netstat -an reports all open ports.

nbstat

Checks NETBIOS connections and update LMHOSTS cache.

Syntax:

  • -a Lists the remote machine's name table given its name
  • -A Lists the remote machine's name table given its IP address.
  • -c Shows the Netbios cache, including the IP addresses
  • -n Lists local NetBIOS names.
  • -R Reloads the Netbios name cache from the lmhosts file.

ipconfig

Allows you to view TCP/IP settings and configuration.

winipcfg

This utility allows users or adminstrators to see the current IP address and other useful information about your network configuration.

You can reset one or more IP addresses. The Release or Renew buttons allow you to release or renew one IP address. If you want to release or renew all IP addresses click Release All or Renew All.

When one of these buttons is clicked, a new IP address is obtained from either the DHCP service or from the computer assigning itself an automatic private IP address.

To use the winipcfg utility

  1. Click Start, and then click Run and type winipcfg
  2. Click More Info.
  3. To see the addresses of the DNS servers the computer is configured to use, click the ellipsis (...) button to the right of DNS Servers.
  4. To see address information for your network adapter(s), select an adapter from the list in Ethernet Adapter Information.

nslookup

Nslookup (Name Server lookup) is a UNIX shell command to query Internet domain name servers.

For example if you did an nslookup on studynotes.net these are some of the results you could obtain.

Query Hostname Real Hostname IP Address
Nameserver NS2.TERA-BYTE.COM ns2.tera-byte.com 216.234.161.12
Nameserver NS1.TERA-BYTE.COM raptor.tera-byte.com 216.234.161.11
Nameserver NS3.TERA-BYTE.COM ns3.tera-byte.com 204.209.56.2
Mailserver studynotes.net (pref = 5) studynotes.net 216.194.69.204
Webserver www.studynotes.net studynotes.net 216.194.69.204
FTP server ftp.studynotes.net studynotes.net 216.194.69.204

Definitions

  • Nameserver: These are the servers that the internet uses to find out more about the domain. Usually they are an ISP's computer.
  • Mailserver: Where email is sent to.
  • Webserver: The domains website.
  • FTPserver: FTP is file transfer protocol, this server is where files may be stored.
  • Hostname: The name of the host as given by the domain.
  • Real Hostname: This is hostname that you get by reverse resolving the IP address, may be different to the given hostname.
  • IP Address: Unique four numbered identifier that is obtained by resolving the hostname.

The Following domains concern installation/troubleshooting scenarios and, this is where I would like to ask for input from you.

If you work through the following domains and create your own scenario(s) please consider posting them here to help others. E-mail me at admin@studynotes.net and I will post giving full credit to you.

4.2 Given a troubleshooting scenario involving a small office/home office network failure (e.g., xDSL, cable, home satellite, wireless, POTS) identify the cause of the failure.

example:

Mary works in an small office where there are 4 computers in a peer to peer configuration running Windows 98 se. She would like to access the Internet through the modem which is attached to Bob's computer.

How would you set this up so Mary and the other users in her office could connect to the Internet through Bob's modem ?

Solution: Install Internet Connection Sharing

Problem: Internet Connection Sharing is installed but Mary still can not connect through Bob's modem.

  1. Under LAN and Internet sharing settings is enable Internet connection sharing enabled ?
  2. The Internet Connection Sharing wizard will set the IP address of the Connection Sharing computer (Bob's) to 192.168.0.1. are the other computers on the network set statically to an IP address in the range from 192.168.0.2 to 192.168.0.253. ?
  3. Is TCP/IP installed properly on all computers ?

As you can see this is just one of many possible scenarios, this is why we need your help.

4.3 Given a troubleshooting scenario involving a remote connectivity problem (e.g., authentication failure, protocol configuration, physical connectivity) identify the cause of the problem.

4.4 Given a security scenario, identify the requirements for an acceptable password.

4.5 Given a network installation scenario, configure the appropriate computer/host name and user name.

4.6 Given a network installation scenario, including specific parameters, configure a workstation to connect to the following servers:

UNIX/Linux

Netware

Windows

Macintosh

4.7 Given a network installation task, select the appropriate networking tool to apply (e.g., wire crimper, media tester/certifier, punch down tool, tone generator, optical tester, etc.).

4.8 Given network maintenance scenario determine whether the visual indicators are indicating a problem with the network.

4.9 Given a network maintenance scenario, including output from a diagnostic utility (e.g. tracert, ping, ipconfig, etc), identify the utility and interpret the output.

4.10 Given a network maintenance scenario, predict the effects of modifying, adding, or removing network components on network resources and users.

4.11 Given a network problem scenario, select an appropriate course of action based on a general troubleshooting strategy. This strategy includes the following steps 1) establish symptoms 2) identify the affected area 3) establish what has changed 4) select the most probably cause 5) implement a solution 6) test the result 7) recognize the potential effects of the solution 8) document the solution

4.12 Given a troubleshooting scenario involving a network with a particular physical topology (i.e., bus, star/hierarchical, mesh, ring, wireless) and including a network diagram, identify the network are effected and the cause of the problem.

4.13 Given a network troubleshooting scenario involving a client connectivity problem, identify the problem:

incorrect protocol

client software

authentication configuration

insufficient rights/permissions

4.14 Given a network troubleshooting scenario involving a wiring/infrastructure problem, identify the cause of the problem:

bad media

interference

network hardware

 
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